<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.2d1 20170631//EN" "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd">
      <Volume-Issue>Volume 2, Special Issue III</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>May 2021</Season>
      <ArticleType>Political Science</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Political Citizenship: Exploring the Precept of Acceptance of State Legitimacy Through Indian Independence Movement</ArticleTitle>
          <FirstName>Dr R</FirstName>
      <Abstract>The concept of citizenship is central to any discourse on society, state and sovereignty. Though the meanings and content of citizenship have evolved over time through interactions between society and state, the anatomy of such interactions has not invited scholarly exploration in the Indian context. The discourses in this dimensions have remained centered on Rights-and-Obligations approach perhaps due to the colonial conceptions of state, though commencing from the colonial times, social action and social movements have made important newer meanings into the concept of citizenship.&#13;
Drawing from RJ Dalton’s study of political citizenship, this paper adopts an explorative methodology to validate a theoretical precept, that acceptance of state legitimacy or otherwise, played an important role in shaping the concept of citizenship in the colonial society. By doing so, the paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework for study of citizenship in postcolonial societies.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>Citizenship,social movement,legitimacy of state,colonial India,post-colonial society,Rights and Duties</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://ejsss.net.in/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=13051&amp;title=Political Citizenship: Exploring the Precept of Acceptance of State Legitimacy Through Indian Independence Movement</Abstract>
        <References>Baylis, J and; Smith, S (2001). The Globalisation of World Politics. An introduction to international relations. OXford, New York: Oxford University Press.&#13;
	Marshall, TH (1950). Citizenship and Social Class, and Other Essays. Cambridge (UK): The University Press.&#13;
	Heijden, H-AV (2014). Introduction: Linking Political Citizenship and Social Movements. In H-AV Heijden, Handbook of Political Citizenship and Social Movements (pp. 1-25). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.&#13;
	Meyer, DS and; Tarrow, SG (1998). The social movement society: contentious politics for a new century. The University of Michigan: Rowman and; Littlefield Publishers.&#13;
	Dalton, RJ (2015). The Good Citizen: How a Younger Generation Is Reshaping American Politics (Vol. 56). Washington DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc.&#13;
	Dalton, RJ (2008). Citizenship Norms and the Expansion of Political Participation. Politicl Studies, 56(1), 76-98.&#13;
	“Engaged citizenship taps participatory norms that are broader than electoral politics. The engaged citizen is more likely to participate in boycotts, buying products for political or ethical reasons, demonstrations and other forms of contentious action (Dalton, 2008)”.&#13;
	Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law (Preamble to UDHR 1948)&#13;
	Shah, G (2004). Social Movements in India: A Review of Literature. New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd.&#13;
	Young India was a newspaper published by Shankerlal Ghelabhai Banker, and Mahatma Gandhi was its Editor.&#13;
	Agarwala, BR (1991). Trials of Independence 1858-1946, National Book Trust of India: New Delhi, P.99&#13;
	Frost, Mark R. (2018) Imperial Citizenship or Else: Liberal Ideals and the India Unmaking of Empire, 1890–1919, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 46:5, 845-873, DOI: 10.1080/03086534.2018.1519243&#13;
	Inamdar, N. (1985). TILAK AND THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 46(4), 387-400. Retrieved May 28, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41855194&#13;
	Roy, Dr RC (January 2004). Social, Economic and Political Philosophy of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Orissa Review, Govt. of Odisha, P 8. Retrieved from:  https://magazines.odisha.gov.in/Orissareview/jan2004/englishpdf/chapter1.pdf Accessed 05 April 2021.&#13;
	In the patriotic context though, it could be argued that challenging the legitimacy of the colonial state is an attempt at re-defining ‘colonial citizenship’. We are of the view that such an argument is not tenable since the notion of citizenship is applicable only within the context of a sovereign and independent state and ‘colonial citizenship’ was devoid of rights such as right to life, right to expression, etc.    &#13;
	Small, N. (1977). Citizenship, Imperialism and Independence: British Colonial Ideals and Independent African States (1st part) / CITOYENNETE, IMPERIALISME ET INDEPENDANCE: IDEAUX DU COLONIALISME BRITANNIQUE ET PAYS INDEPENDANTS Dand;#39;AFRIQUE. Civilisations, 27(1/2), 17-43. Retrieved May 29, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41803084&#13;
	‘Proofing against predatory governance’ is a concept that may be defined as the rule of law framework used by a regime in power in a country that deliberately and intentionally denies equality in the enjoyment of fundamental freedoms - of expression, of worship, right to life and right to livelihood – to any or specific segment of the society in the territory under its authority on the basis of a discriminative yardstick. When such a regime is prevented or strongly discouraged from such discriminate exercise of authority through legislative, judicial or even through the intervention of international community, we may say proofing against predatory governance prevails. For example in India, 44th Constitutional Amendment was adopted to prevent the unilateral usurpation of fundamental rights as was evidenced through 42nd Amendment by Indira Gandhi in 1976. The object of the 44th Amendment clearly states:&#13;
Recent experience has shown that the fundamental rights, including those of life and liberty, granted to citizens by the Constitution are capable of being taken away by a transient majority. It is, therefore, necessary to provide adequate safeguards against the recurrence of such a contingency in the future and to ensure to the people themselves an effective voice in determining the form of government under which they are to live. This is one of the primary objects of this Bill.&#13;
Please see: Government of India, My Government, The Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, at: https://www.india.gov.in/my-government/constitution-india/amendments/constitution-india-forty-fourth-amendment-act-1978</References>