<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.2d1 20170631//EN" "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd">
      <Volume-Issue>Volume 2, Special Issue III</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>May 2021</Season>
      <ArticleType>Political Science</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Citizenship and Discontents: A Socio-Legal Analysis</ArticleTitle>
      <Abstract>Citizenship is the utmost honored form of nationality and it has the wide as well as narrow connotation. According to Aristotle, “citizen is he ‘who has the power to take part in the deliberative or judicial administration of any state is said by us to be a citizen of that state.” Therefore, it is primarily a relationship between an individual and the state and historically, the notion of citizenship initially arose in towns and city-states of Ancient-Greece and citizenship not given to women, slaves, or the poorer members of the community but for property owners. It was used by Romans as a method to distinguish the residents of the city of Rome from those peoples whose territories Rome had conquered and incorporated. Citizens have many rights and duties that are sometime denied or only partially extended to aliens and other non-citizens residing in a country. Citizenship thus includes within its purview a number of things like-right to vote; political rights, hold public offices, etc. The usual responsibilities of citizenship are taxation, allegiance and military service.&#13;
Thus if observation from the developments then it finds that maximum of the 20th century social movements which focus has been on the challenges of these entities stood to the state because only the state had the capacity and willingness to grant economic and social concessions. But there was a shift in the prevailing situation in the years 1960- 1980 as the existing configuration between the state, civil society and the economy was increasingly challenged by market penetration which led to the augmentation of social movements which no longer target state institutions or do so it only in partial way. Their actions and interactions are frequently concerned with the everyday practices, re-shaping demands within specific organizational, legislative and political contexts. Therefore, such activism enlarges the understanding of the concept of citizenship so as to include demands relating to livelihood; division of resources; the production and dissemination of knowledge; and forms of civic participation and solidarity.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>Citizenship,Rights and Duties,Civic Participation,Legislative- Political Aspects,Globalization</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://ejsss.net.in/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=13054&amp;title=Citizenship and Discontents: A Socio-Legal Analysis</Abstract>
        <References>Small, N. (1977). Citizenship, Imperialism and Independence: British Colonial Ideals and Independent African States (1st part) / CITOYENNETE, IMPERIALISME ET INDEPENDANCE: IDEAUX DU COLONIALISME BRITANNIQUE ET PAYS INDEPENDANTS Dand;#39;AFRIQUE. Civilisations, 27(1/2), 17-43. Retrieved March 18, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41803084.&#13;
Amendment on December 3, 2004.&#13;
Ghosh, Atasi (September 13, 2018). What We Talk About When We Talk About Citizenship in India. Retrieved from: https://thewire.in/law/what-we-talk-about-when-we-talk-about-citizenship-in-india (Accessed 15 March 2021).&#13;
UN (n.d). Refugees and Migrants. Retrieved from: https://refugeesmigrants.un.org/definitions (Accessed 10 March 2021).&#13;
UN (n.d). Refugees and Migrants. Retrieved from: https://refugeesmigrants.un.org/definitions (Accessed 10 March 2021).&#13;
Refugee Convention, 1951 and Protocols, 1967.&#13;
UNHCR (September 2011). The 1951 Conventioon relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol. Retrieved from: https://www.unhcr.org/4ec262df9.pdf (Accessed 14 March 2021).&#13;
Grewal, David Singh and Purdy, Jedediah. (2014). Introduction: Law and Neoliberalism.  Retrieved from: http://www.igntu.ac.in/eContent/IGNTU-eContent-340797065733-MA-PoliticalScience-2-Dr.GeorgeT.Haokip-Paper202ContemporaryPoliticalTheory-Unit2.pdf (Accessed 15 March 2021)&#13;
Gudavarthy, Ajay. (September 3, 2019) Neoliberalism is killing the very idea of citizenship in India. Retrieved from: https://qz.com/india/1700542/neoliberalism-is-killing-the-very-idea-of-citizenship-in-india/ (Accessed 20 March 2021)&#13;
Part III contains the Fundamental Rights (Article 12 to 35).&#13;
Part IV contains the Directive Principles of State Policy (Article 36 to 51).&#13;
Article 21- The right to life and personal liberty.&#13;
O’Connell, Paul. (2011) The Death of Socio-Economic Rights. Retrieved from: https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/history/ecc/events/writingrights/workshopprogramme/readingmaterials/oconnell2-death_of_socio-economic_rights.pdf (Accessed 20 March 2021)&#13;
(1996) 4 SCC 37.</References>