<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.2d1 20170631//EN" "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd">
      <Volume-Issue>Volume 1, Issue 1</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>Aug-Sep 2020</Season>
      <ArticleTitle>Reminiscing an African Connect: The Impregnable Janjira</ArticleTitle>
      <Abstract>While India-African historical relations often relate only to Indians settling or making a mark in the African continent during the modern era or the linkages between strong African empires and Indian kings or trading interests, there are instances of Africans reaching India and later even becoming rulers. Unlike other slaves sent to several parts of the world, the African slaves brought to India worked up the social ladder and reached great heights. They were called the Siddis. Initially, the Siddis served in the army of the Ahmadnagar Nawab and later due to their war making prowess were granted posts of commander. The Siddis built the sea-fort of Janjira. The name is derived from the Arab word “Jazeera” meaning island. It is an island fort and the distinction of the fort is that it has never been captured by any ruler including the formidable Maratha ruler, Chatrapathi Shivaji. Despite Shivaji himself having built numerous forts dotting the Maratha landscape, he was unable to capture the Siddis-built Jal Durg even after 13 attempts. The approach to the fort is almost invisible till one is very near the fort. The fort housed palaces and tombs for the early Siddi commanders and rulers. The fort continued to be free till the years of the British Raj when it came under their control. This article seeks to bring out the historical and strategic significance of the fort that exhibits the skills of the African rulers in India and its enduring charm today.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>Siddis,Maritime History,India,Janjira Fort,Indo-African Relations,Malik Ambar,Maratha History,Bijapur Sultan</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://ejsss.net.in/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=8084&amp;title=Reminiscing an African Connect: The Impregnable Janjira</Abstract>
        <References>Anwar, S. (2005). Impact of Prince Khurram’s revolt on the Mughal campaigns (1617-26). Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, 12(2), 39-50.&#13;
Bhatt, P. M. (2018). The African Diaspora in India. London: Routledge India. doi:https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315148380&#13;
Bishop, M. (2013, May 03). PHOTO ESSAY: Africans in India. Retrieved from https://afropop.org/: https://afropop.org/articles/photo-essay-africans-in-india&#13;
Chang, A. (2018, February 14). Beauty and Majesty of the Adil Shahi Architecture of the Jumma Masjid in Bijapur. Retrieved from https://www.talkativeman.com/: https://www.talkativeman.com/author/Aileen_Chang/page/2/&#13;
Deshpande, P., Joshi, S., and; Kadgaonkar, S. (2011). Catalogue Of Forge Welded Iron Cannons. Indian Journal of History of Science, 46(4), 683-693. Retrieved from https://www.insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/IJHS/Vol46_4_8_PPDeshpande.pdf&#13;
Embassy of India in Addis Ababa. (2018, November 04). Commercial Bilateral Relations. Retrieved from The Embassy of India in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: http://indembassyeth.in/commercial-bilateral-relations/&#13;
Gupta, O. (2006). Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing.&#13;
Jayasuriya, S. d., and; Pankhurst, R. (2003). The African diaspora in the Indian Ocean. Trenton, NJ : Africa World Press. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.&#13;
Khilnani, S. (2016). Incarnations: A history of India in 50 lives. New Delhi: Penguin India.&#13;
Ramachandran, N. (2008, October 12). Malik Ambar: Military guru of the Marathas. The Hindu. Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-sundaymagazine/Malik-Ambar-Military-guru-of-the-Marathas/article15402097.ece&#13;
Rangarajan, A. (2008, October 12). Malik Ambar: Military guru of the Marathas. The Hindu. Retrieved May 02, 2020, from A.Rangarajan, Malik Ambar: Military guru of the Marathas, The Hindu, October 12, 2008 http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-sundaymagazine/Malik-Ambar-Military-guru-of-the-Marathas/article15402097.ece: http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-sundaymagazine/Malik-Ambar-Military-guru-of-the-Marathas/article15402097.ece&#13;
Rediscovery Project. (2018, April 23). Murud Janjira’s African past and the mystery of the Boab tree. Retrieved from https://rediscoveryproject.com/: https://rediscoveryproject.com/2018/04/23/murud-siddis-janjira-fort/&#13;
Sihail, R. (2018, August 08). Pakistanand;#39;s first lawmaker of African descent raises hopes for Sidi community. Retrieved from www.bbc.com: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-45099970&#13;
Singh, D. (2015, December 21). Recreating lost history: Archaeologist maps 235 cannons of Chhatrapati Shivaji’s era. Retrieved from https://indianexpress.com/: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/mumbai/recreating-lost-history-archaeologist-maps-235-cannons-of-chhatrapati-shivajis-era/&#13;
Subbanna, S. R. (2007, March 30). Cultural Relations between Ancient India and Egypt. Retrieved from All Empires Online History Community: http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=egypt_india_ancient_relations&#13;
Venkatesh, K. (2017, April 16). India’s African heritage. Retrieved from www.livemint.com: https://www.livemint.com/Sundayapp/p7LfTiQKXkTXkZHNBSZbLO/Indias-African-heritage.html</References>