<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.2d1 20170631//EN" "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd">
      <Volume-Issue>Volume 1, Issue 2</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>Dec 2020 - Jan 2021</Season>
      <ArticleType>Criminal Psychology</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Fear of Crime and Criminal Justice Responses in the Era of COVID-19</ArticleTitle>
          <FirstName>Chyna N.</FirstName>
      <Abstract>While COVID-19 might be a new viral strand, many of the problems it has triggered in the criminal justice system are complications we have seen before. The COVID-19 pandemic crisis has amplified the issues of fear of crime, prison over population, and issues regarding non-violent crimes that exist within the United States. Statistics show that those who are incarcerated in America include high numbers of elderly, sick and at-risk inmates, and high rates of non-violent/ pretrial populations, which leads to prisons becoming hotspots for coronavirus. The scientific community has come to the agreement and made recommendations that prisons and jails need to be depopulated to prevent further spread; however, to date, the types of offenders released is disproportional and the number of people released has remained minimal, resulting in explosive outbreaks of COVID-19 behind bars. Since the depopulation of correctional settings is also rarely paired with meaningful efforts to reform and reduce the non-violent prison population, this paper will examine how the criminal justice system has responded to the Coronavirus crisis to date; how the fear of crime outpaces fear of disease; and how this data can contribute to the nation’s reformation of the criminal justice system.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>pandemic,criminal legal system,incarceration,COVID-19,quarantine</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://ejsss.net.in/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=8892&amp;title=Fear of Crime and Criminal Justice Responses in the Era of COVID-19</Abstract>
        <References>Abrams, D. (2020). COVID and crime: An early empirical look. U of Penn, Inst for Law and; Econ Research Paper, (20-49).&#13;
Akiyama, M. J., Spaulding, A. C., and; Rich, J. D. (2020). Flattening the curve for incarcerated&#13;
populations—Covid-19 in jails and prisons. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(22),2075-2077.&#13;
Balassone, M. (2020, July 10). California Counties Keeping COVID-19 Emergency Bail Schedules California Courts Newsroom. California Courts Newsroom. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://newsroom.courts.ca.gov/news/california-counties-keeping-covid-19-emergency-bail-schedules&#13;
Bentley, J. (2020, May 20). Norfolk County Jail Population Down 27 Percent Since Court Order. Patch. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://patch.com/massachusetts/foxborough/norfolk-county-jail-population-down-27-percent-court-order&#13;
Bradshaw, K. (2020, April 16). Hundreds of inmates have been released from San Mateo county jails in recent weeks. The Almanac Online. Retrieved October 1, 2020, from https://almanacnews.com/news/2020/04/16/hundreds-of-inmates-have-been-released-from-san-mateo-county-jails-in-recent-weeks&#13;
Bureau of Prisons. (2020a).COVID-19 Coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.bop.gov/coronavirus/&#13;
Bureau of Prisons. (2020b).BOP implementing modified operations. Retrieved from https://www.bop.gov/coronavirus/covid19_status.jsp&#13;
Burki, T. (2020). Prisons are “in no way equipped” to deal with COVID-19. Lancet (London, England), 395(10234), 1411.&#13;
Center for Disease Control. (2020, March 23). Interim guidance on management of Coronavirus&#13;
Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in correctional and detention facilities. Retrieved From https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/guidance-correctional-detention.pdf&#13;
Denney, A., and; Celona, L. (2020, March 17). Coronavirus in NY: Brooklyn DA to stop prosecuting ‘low-level’ offenses. New York Post. Retrieved October 12, 2020, from https://nypost.com/2020/03/17/coronavirus-in-ny-brooklyn-da-to-stop-prosecuting-low-level-offenses/&#13;
Franco-Paredes, C., Ghandnoosh, N., Latif, H., Krsak, M., Henao-Martinez, A. F., Robins, M.,&#13;
Barahona, L.V., and;Poeschla, E. M. (2020). Decarceration and community re-entry in the COVID-19 era. The Lancet Infectious Diseases.&#13;
Freckelton, Q. I. (2020). COVID-19: Fear, quackery, false representations and the law. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 101611.&#13;
Hawks, L., Woolhandler, S., and; McCormick, D. (2020). COVID-19 in prisons and jails in the United States. JAMA Internal Medicine.&#13;
Henry, B. F. (2020). Social Distancing and Incarceration: Policy and Management Strategies to Reduce COVID-19 Transmission and Promote Health Equity Through Decarceration. Health Education and; Behavior, 1090198120927318.&#13;
Melamed, S., and; Newall, M. (2020, March 18). With courts closed by pandemic, Philly police stop low-level arrests to manage jail crowding. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved October 5, 2020, from https://www.inquirer.com/health/coronavirus/philadelphia-police-coronavirus-covid-pandemic-arrests-jail-overcrowding-larry-krasner-20200317.html&#13;
Moneymaker, A. (2020, October 07). Trump Returns Home After Downplaying Disease, but Doctor Says He Isn’t ‘Out of the Woods’. The New York Times. Retrieved October 08, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/live/2020/10/05/world/covid-trump&#13;
Moran, G. (2020, April 15). Hundreds released from jail under new bail rules, but prosecutors object to release of nearly 200 more. The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved September 22, 2020, from https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/courts/story/2020-04-15/court-and-jail-releases-draft&#13;
Nowotny, K., Bailey, Z., Omori, M., and; Brinkley-Rubinstein, L. (2020). COVID-19 Exposes need for progressive criminal justice reform. Office of the Inspector General, US Department of Justice. (2020). The impact of an aging inmate population on the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 32(5), 294-318.&#13;
Pascrell, B. (2020, September 03). Donald Trump vs. law enforcement: All the ways he’s hurt policing in America as president. New York Daily News. Retrieved October 01, 2020, from https://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/ny-oped-donald-trump-vs-law-enforcement-20200903-kvrq5fpj4vgythy4iypl2snsmi-story.html&#13;
Pohl, J. (2020, May 27). California jail population plummets during pandemic. Could this lead to long-term change? San Luis Obispo Tribune. Retrieved September 20, 2020, from https://www.sanluisobispo.com/news/california/article242900061.html#storylink=cpy&#13;
Prison Policy Initiative. (2020a, June 25). Failing Grades: States’ Responses to COVID-19 in Jails and; Prisons. Retrieved from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/failing_grades.html&#13;
Prison Policy Initiative. (2020b, August 05). Jails and prisons have reduced their populations in the face of the pandemic, but not enough to save lives. Retrieved from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2020/08/05/jails-vs-prisons-update-2/&#13;
Prison Policy Initiative. (2020c, September 11). Response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/virus/virusresponse.htm&#13;
Reinhart, E., and; Chen, D. (2020). Incarceration And Its Disseminations: COVID-19 Pandemic Lessons From Chicago’s Cook County Jail: Study examines how arrest and pre-trial detention practices may be contributing to the spread of COVID-19. Health Affairs, 10-1377.&#13;
Reichert, J., and; Konefal, K. (2016, August 16). An Examination of Fear of Crime and Social Vulnerability in Chicago Neighborhoods. Retrieved May 09, 2020, from https://icjia.illinois.gov/researchhub/articles/an-examination-of-fear-of-crime-and-social-vulnerability-in-chicago-neighborhoods&#13;
Saad, L. (2020, April 16). In U.S., More Fear COVID-19 Illness Than Financial Harm. Gallup News. Retrieved October 10, 2020, from https://news.gallup.com/poll/308504/fear-covid-illness-financial-harm.aspx&#13;
Saloner, B., Parish, K., Ward, J. A., DiLaura, G., and; Dolovich, S. (2020). COVID-19 cases and deaths in federal and state prisons. JAMA, 324(6), 602-603.&#13;
Scott, C. (2020, April 30). LA County Jail Population Reduced by 5,000 Since Outbreak. Spectrum New 1. Retrieved October 01, 2020, from https://spectrumnews1.com/ca/la-west/inside-the-issues/2020/04/30/l-a--county-jail-population-reduced-by-5-000-since-beginning-of-coronavirus-outbreak&#13;
Smith, D. (2020, April 8). Judicial Council of California approves $0 bail for low-level suspects. Sacramento Bee Logo. Retrieved September 20, 2020, from https://www.sacbee.com/news/coronavirus/article241817606.html&#13;
Souza, S. (2020, May 20). Plymouth County Jail Population Down 20 Percent Since Court Order. Yahoo News. Retrieved September 06, 2020, from https://news.yahoo.com/plymouth-county-jail-population-down-222304678.html&#13;
Souza, S. (2020b, May 20). Bristol County Jail Population Down 11 Percent Since Ruling. Yahoo News. Retrieved September 06, 2020, from https://news.yahoo.com/bristol-county-jail-population-down-224419817.html&#13;
Surprenant, C. (2020). COVID-19 and pretrial detention. Special Edition Policy Brief.&#13;
Wurcel, A. G., Dauria, E., Zaller, N., Nijhawan, A., Beckwith, C., Nowotny, K., and; Brinkley-Rubinstein, L. (2020). Spotlight on jails: COVID-19 mitigation policies needed now. Clinical Infectious Diseases. &#13;
Vera Institute of Justice. (2020, March 18).Guidance for preventive and responsive measures to Coronavirus for jails, prisons, immigration detention and youth facilities. RetrievedFromhttps://www.vera.org/downloads/publications/coronavirus-guidance-jails-prisons-immigration-youth.pdf</References>