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      <Volume-Issue>Volume 1, Issue 2</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>Dec 2020 - Jan 2021</Season>
      <ArticleType>Human Rights</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Procedure Established by Law, Right to Privacy and Investigative Powers of State: An Appraisal</ArticleTitle>
          <FirstName>Dr R</FirstName>
      <Abstract>Indian Constitution as we know, is the lengthiest written Constitution in the world. The architects of this stellar monument drew inputs and inspiration from the Constitutions of USA, Australia, Great Britain, Canada, Ireland, France, Germany and Japan. In particular, Part III Fundamental Rights was inspired by the concept of fundamental rights enshrined in the American Constitution. An interesting contrast though is the Indian architects’ (especially Sir BN Rau) rejection of the Due Process clause that was introduced by the 5th Amendment to the American Constitution. Instead, drawing from the Japanese, Procedure Established by Law was incorporated when it came to protecting individual citizens’ Right to Life and Liberty from arbitrary actions of the State.&#13;
In the eight decades after Independence, the Supreme Court of India has expanded and concretized the concept of Procedure Established by law in a manner that is a shining example for protection of human rights everywhere. Juridical principles established by the Apex Court such as Test of Reasonableness play an important role in determining the validity of actions by law enforcement agencies. This paper attempts to compare the Indian Constitutional provisions with appropriate case laws and one of America’s oft-cited Rochin’s Case in which investigative powers of the state intruded into individual’ privacy challenging ‘Due Process clause’ seriously.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>Constitution,Human Rights,Fundamental Rights,Right to Privacy,Investigative Powers of State,Medical Examination of Accused,Procedure Established by Law,Society and Law</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://ejsss.net.in/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=8894&amp;title=Procedure Established by Law, Right to Privacy and Investigative Powers of State: An Appraisal</Abstract>