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      <Volume-Issue>Volume 2, Special Issue 1</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>February 2021</Season>
      <ArticleTitle>Embracing Curzon’s Political Vision to Secure India’s Cultural and Political Borders</ArticleTitle>
          <FirstName>Mithlesh Jayas</FirstName>
      <Abstract>Lord Curzon is a name reviled in Bengal as the man who divided Bengal in 1905; but he is also a man regarded by historians as one who believed in the greatness of ancient India. The centrality of India and its culture as a “core” of the Indian subcontinent is geographically and historically apparent. According to Curzon, defence of the Indian subcontinent lay in control of surrounding buffer areas of the Kabul and Herat valleys, Tibet and Burma and their denial to potential enemies. In the south, such zones included entries to the Arabian Sea at Aden, the Indian Ocean at Seychelles / Mauritius and the Bay of Bengal from the Malacca and Sunda Straits. The present Indian borders have surrendered significant portions of the outer buffer areas and exposed the Indian core homeland to external threats. The existence of Pakistan as a state inimical to India, the Chinese expansion into Tibet, PoK and parts of eastern Ladakh as well as increasing Chinese influence over Nepal have exposed the Gangetic Valley, the Assam valley and the eastern Punjab Plains to potential invasion. Cultural and demographic encroachment of traditional Indian borderlands have created potential flashpoints. Indian policy makers must realize the necessity of having a stable and peaceful rim of buffer states to allow core areas to prosper and progress. This need not be conquest or occupation but economically, culturally and spatially incorporate rim buffer states friendly to India in a unified common economic and cultural unit while remaining politically distinct. The objective of this paper is using a historical-empirical method to analyse the strategic effect of India moving beyond its borders to exercise influence based on Curzon’s vision.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>Indian subcontinent,Partition of India,India’s borders,Soft power,Buffer States,Indian strategic affairs.,Curzon</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://ejsss.net.in/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=9312&amp;title=Embracing Curzon’s Political Vision to Secure India’s Cultural and Political Borders</Abstract>
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